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Use of lean manufacturing tools in an electroplating shop

https://doi.org/10.38013/2542-0542-2020-2-32-44

Abstract

This article describes the experience of implementing a centralized control system of operational planning at the Obukhov State Plant JSC. This system is based on the use of lean manufacturing tools for reducing production losses during manufacturing of civilian and military products.

For citation:


Andreev I.A. Use of lean manufacturing tools in an electroplating shop. Journal of «Almaz – Antey» Air and Space Defence Corporation. 2020;(2):32-44. https://doi.org/10.38013/2542-0542-2020-2-32-44

Introduction

Every year, new demands are raised for electroplated coatings, thus broadening their fields of application. The modern machine-building, radio electronics, metallurgy and instrument engineering are inconceivable without protective-decorative electroplated coatings, which increase corrosion resistance of metals, ensure the required functional properties, such as hardness, wear resistance, electrical conductivity, heat resistance [1]. North-Western regional center of “Almaz - Antey” Concern — Obukhovsky Plant JSC (hereinafter - Obukhovsky Plant) uses most of the known types of electroplated coatings and their applications for different conditions, as shown in Table 1.

 

Table 1

Purpose of electroplated coatings

Coating

Application

Galvanization

Provides corrosion protection for parts of vehicles and mechanisms, fittings, metalware, wire and other batch products operated in different climatic regions with moderate humidity

Phosphate coating/ oxyphosphate coating

Protects steel parts against corrosion, improves adhesion of paint materials and glues, used as an electro-insulating coating

Chemical oxidation

Improves adhesion of paint materials

Anodic coating of aluminium alloys

Anodic oxide film significantly improves protective properties of aluminium and its alloys

Cadmium plating

Ensures anti-corrosion protection in fresh and sea water

Chemical passivation

Forms a thin protective layer (film) preventing corrosion

Electrolytic polishing

Used for decorative surface finish of products, tools and fine work parts

Chrome plating

Used for decorative finish and protection of parts against corrosion, increasing parts wear resistance

Etching of copper and its alloys

Performed before welding, soldering in order to clean from coarse oxides

Tin plating

Used for protecting electrical contacts against oxidation

Copper plating

Used as a sublayer to decrease porosity and increase adherence of coatings

Nickel plating

Used as protective-decorative coating

Coating with alloy of lead-tin

Allows to perform soldering with solder alloys. Plastic coating

Coating with alloy of tin-bismuth, nickel, tin-bismuth

Protects parts subject to soldering

The unique properties of electroplated coatings along with their proper application to the products allow to ensure the maximum service life of the products. This is particularly important in the extreme conditions of armament, military and special equipment operation. This article gives an overview of lessons learned during improving the quality of processes in an electroplating shop through loss prevention by using lean manufacturing tools.

Development of the centralized control system and implementation of automation in electroplating production

Electroplating production of Obukhovsky Plant dates back to 1977, and today it is one of the largest and most reliable representatives of its field in the Russian Federation [2].

In the first half of 2017, the manufacturing capacities of the electroplating shop were significantly increased due to complete refit: a modern complex combining the latest advances in the technology and safety requirements was built, state of the art equipment and industrial furniture were purchased [3]. New electroplating production was established to implement a variety of electroplated coatings required for all enterprises being part of North-Western regional center of “Almaz - Antey” Concern. The list of coatings includes more than 50 items, such as chrome plating, phosphate coating, galvanization and cadmium plating of large-size products in unique vertical baths, multi-layer and paint coatings. All types of coatings are applied based on the regulatory framework and in accordance with GOST, OST, specifications and other normative documents.

By the end of 2017, the main production workers and engineering staff have moved from the old facility into the new building. During the next six months of adaptation and mastering of new technologies and equipment by the operating personnel, their primary professional retraining into electroplating lines operators was carried out. However, as is typically the case during refitting, the process of adaptation and mastering of new technologies is considerably delayed due to impossibility to suspend the production and adjust to the new conditions. Learning to use the automation of electroplating lines was particularly challenging due to the absence of individual processes for coatings, required tooling and insufficient qualification of the personnel with respect to the lines programming. In order to master the automation processes and develop new technologies, lean manufacturing project “Electroplating lines automation” aimed at improvements was launched in September 2018. The project key performance indicators were defined for each line as the percentage of operation in automatic/manual modes considering the transition period and building effect. These indicators allowed to evaluate the personnel performance and the extent to which the invested effort matched the achieved result. The project main objectives were as follows:

  • obtaining parts and assembly units (hereinafter - PAU) coatings of the required quality with the lines operating in automatic mode, eliminating quality loss previously related to human factor;
  • increasing the flow velocity of value stream by using universal and special quickset tooling;
  • reducing manual labour and occupational health hazard;
  • upgrading personnel qualification for operating the lines in the automatic mode [3].

Referring to the flow velocity, it is worth recalling the definition of value stream (hereinafter - VS) and its main characteristics. VS includes all actions, both value-creating and non-value-creating, which allow the product to go through all the processes: from concept development to production launch and from order acceptance to delivery to the consumer. These actions include information processing, as well as operations to transform the product as it moves towards the consumer.

The main characteristics of VS are as follows:

  • processes capacity, being the characteristic of value creation and transfer velocity (current and average per calendar period);
  • time of beats and cycles (from the input of the previous process to the output of the subsequent one);
  • buffer stocks (time of ensuring of process operation upon disruption of a delivery at the right time, in the right quantity, in the right place);
  • reverse process cycle time (time required for actions with nonconforming products);
  • process readiness coefficients (processes shall have equal readiness coefficients) [4].

Within the electroplating shop project, electroplating processes capacity factor V, rub./h, was important and calculated by the formula: 

where C2 is value at consumer process input (part price at subsequent process input); C1 is value at supplier process input (part price at previous process input); At is time of value creation by supplier process and its transfer to consumer process input (time between the moments of two successive process inputs).

Logistic processes have a significant influence on the processes capacity, since it depends on the time between the moments of two successive process inputs, which includes the time of value creation and time of value transfer (see formula 2).

Δt = Δtоб + Δtлог                                                 (2)

where Δto6 is time interval of PAU coating (value creation action); Δtлог is time interval of transfer from supplier process output to consumer process input (value transfer action).

VS capacity is defined by the capacity (velocity) of primitive actions on creating and transferring a value in the stream.

If formula (1) has a constant numerator within the framework of work under a state defence order, due to preconditioned prices, then the denominator would be the target for improvement. By reducing the costs for coating time and transfer time as per formula (2), improvement of electroplating processes capacity indicator would become possible.

For reviewing and analysing the main losses of the electroplating shop, a cross-discipline working group was set up including the representatives of almost all the branches related to the electroplating shop. Within the framework of the first stage of planning, the working group revealed the following losses:

  • low automation level of electroplating lines. Only two lines out of six operate in partially automatic mode. There are no indicators of lines operation in automatic mode;
  • incomplete centralized control system employment for the lines automation monitoring due to the absence of connection to the lines controller. System reports require modification considering the shop revenue load;
  • there is no information on the shop capacity utilization;
  • insufficient plant infrastructure of electroplating lines for obtaining high-quality PAU coating in the automatic mode;
  • there is no reliable and immediate-access information on completed assignments from third party customers, long period of assignments processing by the lines electroplaters and foremen;
  • low level of tooling and accessory recording. Difficulties associated with searching and understanding;
  • insufficient amount of tools for working in automatic mode;
  • difficulties associated with interchangeability of shop workers. Risk of a certain electroplating line shut down due to the absence (illness, leave, day off) of a worker setting the limits;
  • low level of creative potential among shop workers. There are no improving proposals or innovation proposals [5];
  • duplicated information on the completed assignments added by foremen and section heads in the centralized control system and in the logbook as per QCD requirement.

By implementing the project of introducing lean manufacturing principles in the electroplating shop and solving the baseline tasks, the cross-discipline working group has managed to introduce individual and group technical processes for the coatings into the lines control system, design and manufacture/purchase the required tooling, train and motivate the shop personnel and - as a result - master the automation processes on the electroplating lines.

Figure 1 shows the percentage of lines operation in automatic mode when moving to the shop and after completion of the lean manufacturing project aimed at automation. The line operation in automatic mode has increased maximum to 95 %, and on average from 19 to 88 %.

The centralized operational monitoring, automated system accounting and coordinated control of all manufacturing processes in electroplating shop are the most important tasks that needed to be addressed for effective organization of the electroplating process within the framework of the improvement project. Logistic streams of internal suppliers and consumers need to be formed up into interacting subsystems - they need effective management. Since electroplating processes are in the middle of VS (as a rule, between the tooling and assembly), it is very hard to make a long-term planning of electroplating shop operation. However, it is necessary to organize a transparent and efficient centralized control system for arrivals to the input and output, as well as for the processes running within the shop, since, as a rule, the shop system of operational planning is represented by a “blackbox”, as shown in Figure 2.

Fig. 2. Operational planning system

The absence of transparent and flexible system of operational planning in the electroplating shop entails a lot of losses disclosed in lean manufacturing, such as searching, downtime, excess transportation and transfers, continuous holding periods, large amounts of stocks, over-processing, modifications and rejections. In order to minimize the impact or completely eliminate the losses associated with operational planning, a unique (dedicated for specific tasks) automated centralized control system was created from scratch; this system allowed to increase manifold the efficiency of specialists involved in the production records and operational planning, as well as to introduce time-based follow-up control at each workflow stage, which gave an opportunity to obtain data even in case of rejection, and if improvement are deemed necessary, work with the same within the framework of lean manufacturing. Initially, the contribution of lean manufacturing into the centralized control system implementation involved assistance in composing the statement of work for the system development, then - its most rapid implementation in the shop for efficient elimination of revealed losses and instant system improvement within the framework of implementation stage, in order to avoid the shop waiting time and allow it to transfer to the new work system according to the plan.

The dispatcher work has become intellectual - its main focus has shifted from the routine methods of search and processing of actual paper information on the performed works towards managing of electronic information, analysing of the current manufacturing situation and preventing of undesirable events, such as downtime and delays in orders execution. The developed production cycle of the centralized control system operation is shown in Figure 3.

Fig. 3. Diagram of the centralized control system operation

The cycle includes the following processes.

  • Preparation by supplier shop of workflow charts and parts to be sent to the electroplating shop.
  • Registration of new assignment in the system, implemented by forwarding agents. To register an assignment, the forwarding agent shall scan the barcode on the workflow chart using a scanner on one of the electronic terminals installed throughout the shop territory. After completing the information check, the forwarding agent confirms order registration in the system. The order status is changed to “Incoming”. The order is registered immediately after the part has been delivered to the shop!
  • Processing of assignment by the dispatcher. Once an assignment has been registered, the dispatcher may proceed to its processing. The dispatcher has to process all the incoming orders though entering the missing information by filling-in the fields and hand the orders over to the electroplating shop operators (as shown in Figure 4). System processing of an assignment by the dispatcher includes the following actions:
  1. Select the part coating type.
  2. Select an electroplating line to send the part to.
  3. Add a comment, if any.
  4. Add operations required for order execution.
  5. Select the sequence of operations.
  6. Select coating thickness, if applicable.
  7. Print a workflow chart.
  8. Change the order status to “TBD”
  9. Hand the workflow chart over to the loader.
  • Assignment acceptance and operations on the order are accomplished by the electroplating line workers. The operator (electroplating line worker) can accept the assignment only after its processing by the dispatcher and after parts are delivered to the electroplating line by the loader. The operator confirms the assignment in the system (the assignment status is changed from “TBD” to “In progress”) and proceeds to perform the required operations. The number of simultaneously processed assignments is determined by the electroplating line availability. The operator may not confirm new assignments unless it is possible to proceed to their execution at that time. All operations on the electroplating line under one assignment and processing of this assignment in the centralized control system are performed in parallel (on-line). After completing the operations of his section, the foreman hands the assignment over to the next section, according to the workflow chart.
  • Completion of works under the order and delivery of products to the engineering QC. After completing all the operations under one assignment, the foreman checks the work performed by the operators and makes a decision on delivery of products to the engineering QC. The foreman delivers the product together with the workflow chart for the engineering QC. The assignment status is changed from “In progress” to “QCD acceptance”.
  • The products engineering QC is performed by the QCD employee. After checking the product for compliance with technical parameters, the QCD employee confirms the product acceptance in the system. The QCD employee makes a decision on the results of passing the engineering QC. If the checked products fully satisfy the technical parameters, the QCD employee accepts the product. The assignment status is changed from “QCD acceptance” to “For shipping”.
  • Completion of order execution. After passage of all production stages, the forwarding agent will be able to process the workflow chart on a terminal. The assignment status is changed from “For shipping” to “Completed”. Only after completing these operations, the forwarding agent can take the order.

Fig. 4. Incoming orders in the system

 

It is important to mention that the system obtains information on the products incoming for electroplating in advance, which gives the electroplating shop an opportunity to adjust input planning and load the lines more effectively increasing the number of coated PAU and completing all items dead-on-time [6]. When the parts are ready, they are presented to the QCD inspector in the scope of electroplated coatings, upon handing-over, the signal on the parts readiness is sent via the automated system to the downstream shop. Besides, the system visualizes all active line orders and processes in on-line mode (as shown in Figure 5), which makes it possible for every person concerned to understand the current situation. Also, the system includes a unit where mechanical and power engineers can monitor the line status and give quick response to faults and failures. And visualization of parts processing level gives consumer shops understanding and an opportunity to effectively plan their activities. Any holding, waiting periods and other inconsistencies in time and quantity are immediately output to the system and displayed on the monitors installed in the shop. Data analysis is performed by the shop line management, monthly report is handed over to the plant management. In case any deviations or degradations are revealed, the shop analyses their cause. If the cause can be eliminated, then it is done using own resources, otherwise, lean manufacturing department is requested to assist in the implementation of improvements and launching of a project for more effective usage of all resources.

 

Fig. 5. Summary of orders in the centralized control system

By collecting this statistical information from the system, it is possible to analyse, make conclusions and debottleneck the streams, which is continuously being done within the framework of lean manufacturing projects aimed at improvements.

The development of the centralized control system has had an immediate positive effect: Figures 6 and 7 show the diagrams of PAU and workflow charts arrivals for 2018-2019, which demonstrate an increase in the scope of performed works by 14.9 and 16.8 %, respectively, in 2019. The number of workflow charts processed by the dispatchers of the Distribution and Planning Bureau has increased; however, considering the centralized control system improvement, as well as other improvements, the labour load has remained unchanged, thus creating additional reserves. It allowed to avoid employment of additional staff - on the contrary, this provided an opportunity to load the shop reserves with third-party orders and diversify the production (Table 5). The automated system allows to determine actual load of each line based on the estimated PAU coating area. In the course of analysing the load, it is possible to individually plan the work and shifts for the lines and personnel.

 

 

 

 

 

Based on the project results in the area of automation and centralized control system improvement, the outcomes given in Tables 2 and 3 were obtained.

 

Table 2

Improvements within the framework of lean manufacturing project

State before improvement

State after improvement

Low automation level of electroplating lines. Only 2 lines out of 6 operate in partially automatic mode. No indicators of lines operation in automatic mode

Single and group coating application modes were entered into the database of lines control systems. Training in using the programs for PAU coating in automatic mode was provided to the working personnel. The indicators of lines operation in automatic mode were developed for each line. An incentive program was developed for transition period. 6 lines were transferred to automatic operation mode (5 lines were transferred completely - more than 90 % of operation in automatic mode, 1 line was transferred partially - more than 50 % of operation in automatic mode)

Incomplete centralized control system employment for the lines automation monitoring due to the absence of connection to the lines controller. System reports require modification considering the shop revenue load

In cooperation with lines manufacturers, reading of line operation status signal, as well as information on the number of launched processes on each line was implemented. System reports were configured taking into account these signals, which allowed to determine the actual load of lines and make allowance for the line operation mode

No information of the shop capacity utilization

There is a record of statistics on completed PAU (except for external orders) and incoming workflow charts. A reference book of coatings coverage for every PAU in the system was created and is being kept

 

 

Table 3

Improvements within the framework of lean manufacturing project

State before improvement

State after improvement

Insufficient infrastructure of electroplating lines for obtaining qualitative PAU coating in automatic mode

Control program was updated for all electroplating lines to ensure automatic mode operation:

-    an option of setting different current modes in one cycle at loading PAU in the operating bath was implemented;

-    a function of multiple dipping of parts into the rinsing baths using manipu lator mechanism was implemented;

-    PAU loading rack hold time was reduced through supplier control program debugging;

- a function of dipping into the operating baths of the main coatings was added;

- an option of archiving weight quantity in automatic mode was restored

No reliable and immediate-access information on completed assignments from third party customers, long term assignments processing by the lines electroplaters and foremen

Automatic entry was configured for data on PAU transferred for coating from third-party customers; this allowed to reduce the time of assignments processing by the lines electroplaters and foremen, and allowed to ensure reliability of data for determining lines load

Low level of tooling and accessory recording. Difficulties associated with searching and understanding

Tool supply department was established with the department head and 1 engineer. Functions of recording, ordering and maintaining the tooling were assigned. The inventory with cell-based storage of tooling was arranged in one table. Missing certificates for tools were developed. Recording and handing-out were standardized. For the oversize line, a table was developed for selecting the size of modular tooling, which simplifies the search of the required items

Insufficient amount of tools for working in automatic mode

Specialized baskets were designed and manufactured for increasing the load of lines of anodic coating and chemical oxidation of aluminium. Specialized herringbone-type tools were designed and manufactured for reducing the time spent for wire tying. Specialized universal suspension-type accessory featuring removable and interchangeable bars with plastisol insulation were designed and purchased for reducing the time spent for tooling maintenance

Difficulties associated with interchangeability of shop workers. Risk of a certain electroplating line shut down due to the absence (illness, leave, day off) of a worker setting the limits

Competency matrix was drawn up for all shop workers with indication of each worker’s skills of working on the shop electroplating lines. Workers setting the limits, whose knowledge needs to be passed over, were visualised. Corrective actions were introduced with respect to guidance of less competent workers by more competent ones. The workers are motivated to upgrade qualification. There is a positive trend, 16 workers upgraded their qualification over a year

 

Table 3, continued

State before improvement

State after improvement

Low level of creative potential among shop workers. No improving proposals, innovation proposals

During project implementation, 13 improving proposals were submitted, 2 of which have actual economic effect (IP “Alternative method of vanes manufacturing” and IP “Anode covers”). Total annual effect from proposals implementation amounts to: 375,904 rub.

Duplicated information on the completed assignments added by foremen and section heads in the centralized control system Sitrace + in the logbook as per QCD requirement

A problem with duplicated documentation in the shop was solved.

Together with QMS department, tasks of duplicates withdrawal were solved. Non-compliances in the workflow chart were eliminated in order to implement the proposal as per QCD requirement. Duplicated workflow charts logbooks were withdrawn from circulation, which made available about 25 % of the total worktime fund of the shop foremen

The diagram of PAU arrivals by month for 2018-2019 (Fig. 6) demonstrates the shop load increased by 14.9 % in 2019 as compared to the previous year. The trend line goes up, which indicates increasing load from the beginning of the year. However, considerable variations from 75,000 to 330,000 PAU per month indicate unbalanced PAU supply by supplier shops caused by single-item and low-vol-ume production specifics.

The diagram of workflow charts arrivals for 2018-2019 demonstrates scope of work increased by 16.8 % in 2019 as compared to the previous year. The number of workflow charts processed by the dispatchers of the DPB has increased; however, considering the centralized control system improvement, as well as other improvements, the labour load has remained unchanged, thus creating additional reserves.

The development of the centralized control system and implementation of electroplating lines automation within the framework of lean manufacturing project allowed to reduce or completely eliminate the impact of losses [7] shown in Table 4.

 

Table 4

Elimination of loss in electroplating production

Type of loss

BEFORE

AFTER

Transportation/transfers

Multiple transfers of parts in electroplating shop caused by planning errors and quality issues.

10 % of the total number of transfers

Achievement of transparency and flexibility of operational planning using the centralized control system. Improvement of quality by introducing automation, reducing the time of parts processing. Unnecessary transfers were reduced down to 1 % of the total number of transfers

Holding periods

Holding periods before parts processing in electroplating shop.

On average, downtime amounted to 40 % of the total worktime fund

The centralized control system was developed, which made electroplating lines load planning possible and allowed supplier shops to predict the time of sending and receipt after coating.

Downtime reduced to 10-15 % of the total worktime fund, and holding period after sending for coating -to 1-2 days

Holding periods after sending parts for coating by recipient shops.

On average, holding period amounts to 3-4 days

Waiting periods

The parts wait in electroplating shop before and after coating due to long period of recipient shops informing on the completed coating.

On average, waiting period amounts to 1-2 days

It is impossible to forget about any part, the whole electroplating cycle is visualized in the system with time indicators setting.

On average, waiting period reduced by 90 %. PAU are collected within 0.5 days after coating

Over processing

Cases of incorrect coating application and errors of acceptance by QCD inspectors. The error amounted on average to 1 % of the total number of coated PAU

It is impossible to make an error, all matters are managed by the system, where the entire workflow is displayed.

Errors were eliminated completely

Rejections

Cases of low-quality coating due to human factor or inaccurate information in paper documents.

On average, low-quality coating amounted to 5 % of the total number of coated PAU. Document errors amounted to 10 % of the total amount

Minimum modifications and alterations achieved through developing error protection system and minimization of paper documents.

On average, low-quality coating reduced down to 1 % of the total number of coated PAU. Document errors were eliminated completely

The project implementation has unleashed the reserves of electroplating production resources, which shall be loaded in order to avoid the downtime of high-tech equipment and experienced personnel. A strategic plan is required for successful implementation of a long-term development program of electroplating production loading. Due to gradual annual reduction of state defence order, marketing processes should be the basis for the strategic plan. The reserves unleashed by introduction of the centralized control system and automation, as well as downtime of electroplating equipment, can be excluded in case of cooperation with third-party customers throughout Russia.

Within the framework of the next (after automation) large-scale lean manufacturing project aimed at diversification and attraction of third-party customers, we have managed to successfully change the situation and overcome all difficulties of work on cooperation with external clients which are associated with over-bureaucratization and long terms (as demonstrated in Table 5).

 

Table 5

Improvements within the framework of lean manufacturing project

State before improvement

State after improvement

Low profit indicators and demand for electroplated coatings of third-party customers

External marketable output indicators in 2019 for the period of project management have increased by more than 2 times on average, as compared with the same period of 2018 (as shown in Figure 8)

Low level of marketing targeted on attracting third-party customers

Marketing department was established based on the shop specialists. Main functions and operation indicators were identified. Infrastructure was created. Cooperation with third-party customers is actively developed. During six months of project management, contracts with 15 new customers were concluded

Poor understanding of basic and competitive advantages of Obukhovsky Plant JSC electroplating production for entering the market of third-party customers

The list of main competitors in Northwestern Federal District was developed. Large-scale electroplating productions, their coating options, price, terms and quality were analysed. The list of competitive advantages of Obukhovsky Plant JSC electroplating production in Northwestern Federal District was developed. The capacities of competitors are continuously monitored and the capacities database is maintained

Long-term information management related to application processing / contract conclusion / work completion certificate at Obukhovsky Plant JSC

The time of application processing and providing response to incoming application was reduced from 15 to 5 hours. Function of financial assessment of incoming order was assigned to the shop marketing department. The process of agreement and number of agreeing persons were optimized to increase the rate of information transfer to the customer. Recording of all applications was standardized in the form of a table containing the entire workflow and taking into account time and deviations.

A table was drawn-up with the list of coatings and maximum PAU dimensions in order to provide prompt response to the customer without involving the foremen

No orders for electroplated coating with manufacturing custom tooling

Simplified process of custom tooling design and manufacture for a third-party customer was developed. On average, time was reduced from 25 to 10 working days.

A electronic database of tooling was implemented in the electroplating shop with inclusion of the main standard sizes and photos in order to provide prompt response regarding available tooling

Low-quality website and no promotion of Obukhovsky Plant JSC electroplating production via Internet resources

An interactive website was developed for Obukhovsky Plant JSC electroplating production with a description of the main processes divided by the type of coatings, including the list of available options and dimensions of coated PAU, sizes of baths, competitive advantages. Options were identified for promoting the website via Yandex Direct and moving it to the top in search queries

No advertising of Obukhovsky Plant JSC electroplating production

Advertising booklets with the main information were developed for Obukhovsky Plant JSC electroplating production in order to hand out to the customers. Participation in exhibitions and conferences was scheduled for 2020. Printed and web-based media were analysed in order to publish the information on electroplated coatings and options provided by Obukhovsky Plant JSC. Information and academic papers are prepared

It is a fair assumption to say that, without active marketing, Obukhovsky Plant JSC electroplating production will experience downtimes, just like many other types of production of subsidiaries of Air and Space Defence Corporation “Almaz - Antey”. Since this production is an advanced one not only in the North-West, but in Russia, we must work to load it with high-technology and complicated orders.

Conclusion

Lean manufacturing proves its effectiveness at all stages of the product life cycle. Methods and tools used to eliminate different losses make it possible to unleash time resources for personnel and equipment for effective work; as a consequence, financial and economic effect is produced for an enterprise. Within the framework of the projects, competitive advantages of electroplating production with respect to quality, time and price were developed, which promote active engagement of new customers and diversification of production. The shop personnel continuously upgrades its qualification and promotes continuous production improvement. This contributes to effective, high-quality and timely work performance.

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About the Author

I. A. Andreev
Obukhov State Plant, JSC
Russian Federation

Andreev Ilya Andreevich – Head of the Department for Lean Manufacturing Technologies

Research interests: production engineering, lean manufacturing, technological and design process engineering.



For citation:


Andreev I.A. Use of lean manufacturing tools in an electroplating shop. Journal of «Almaz – Antey» Air and Space Defence Corporation. 2020;(2):32-44. https://doi.org/10.38013/2542-0542-2020-2-32-44

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